Received: October 17, 2001
On the Dependence of Western Russian Passion Presentations on the Western Graphics in the 16th to 18th Centuries
The coexistence of Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Jewish and
Arab inhabitants in the far eastern areas of the Polish Republic imposed mutual
contacts and intermingling of elements taken from different cultures. Byzantine
art, which for centuries was inspired by the canons of beauty shaped in the
early Middle Ages, could not stand the confrontation with new aesthetic trends
which evolved in the West in the Renaissance era and were developed and
transformed in the Mannerist and Baroque eras. Old models, sanctified by
tradition, no longer satisfied the changing tastes of the new generation,
impressed by new trends coming from beyond the western border. Artists working
for the orthodox church, following fashion, more and more decidedly broke off
from traditional patterns and artistic media, and modelled their work on the
ones of western masters. An enormous role in changes of the western Russian icon
painting was played by graphics, which was the most important source of new
iconographic composition and motifs.
Changes in the way of presenting topics inspired by graphics
could be primarily observed in presentations of narrative character, especially
those relating to The Passion of Christ. Complex passion cycles were
popular in both the Orthodox and the Catholic church.
A custom developed in western Russia from the 15th
century which was characterised by painting between a dozen and several tens of
passion scenes on enormous icons hung most often on the northern wall of the
nave. Moreover, along the transformation and enlargement of the iconostasis wall
in the 17th and 18th century
additional rows of icons were added to it (Passion rows come from the orthodox
church of the Dormition of the Mother of God in Lviv1, in Ss. Piatnice orthodox
church in Lviv in Kamianka BuŸkoj2, and in Skwarzawa Nowa passion scenes
were placed around the three-metre high Crucifixion which crowns the
iconostasis wall3). Wooden orthodox churches, which constitute the majority of
churches in the Karpaty regions were not conducive to the development of
monumental painting. Nevertheless, in a few orthodox churches there are still
passion cycles painted on the walls of the church of the Holy Spirit in the
village of Potylicz from around 16204, the church of St. George in the town of
Drogobych and the church of the Ascension in the village of Ulucz5.
The topic of The Passion of Christ, undertaken by
artists from all art disciplines, continued with unabated popularity in the West
from the Middle Ages. Graphics, developing from the 15th
century, also dealt with this topic. Initially, referring to the tradition of
illustrated handwritten versions, passion scenes decorated the pages of
religious volumes6; soon afterwards, published in a form of loose copies, often
in very large editions, these almost flooded entire Europe, reaching its eastern
borders in the 16th and 17th century.
On the basis of research carried out so far7 it has been
possible to establish which of the graphic presentations of passion topics were
known among western Russian painters working for the Orthodox Church, and which
of them influenced the changes in the way of presenting The Passion of Christ
in the 16th and 17th century.
The oldest icon whose origin can be traced back to the
western model is The Passion of Christ from Truszewice, near Dobromil,
dated to the turn of the 16th century8 (fig. 1). Its
creator, most probably local and not very skilled9, when designing scenes in the
top part of the icon (Ecce homo, The Flagellation (fig. 2), The
Mocking of Christ) used woodcuts by Martin Schongauer [B. 15 (125), B. 12
(125), B. 13 (125)10], or by one of his numerous followers.
The Russian painter, not being able to make a faithful copy
of the woodcut by the German master, copied only the general composition of the
scenes, simplified the positions of the figures, clumsily reproducing their
gestures, facial expressions and elements of garments. The scene of The
Flagellation shows the clumsiness with which the creator of the icon was
trying to treat the print as a model. The figure of the soldier, to the left of
Christ, acquired some caricature-like features: it is only thanks to the
prototype that we know it should have been a man shown from behind, dressed in a
garment with slit sleeves, loosely thrown over his back. In reality the legs and
the left hand of the mercenary are presented from the front and his trunk and
right hand from the back. Also the object lying at the feet of Christ, difficult
to identify on the icon, turned out to be the garment torn from the Convict. The
arches in the background of the presentation were inspired by the Gothic
interior with a rib vault, which was difficult for the creator of the icon to
In the East-Slovak Museum in Koszyce there is a 17th
century icon representing The Passion of Christ from Ko¿uchowce (Közmös).
The composition of scenes and iconographic motifs in this icon are remote from
the tradition of Byzantine - Russian painting: they were taken from western art.
The painter of The Passion from Ko¿uchowce used prints by Hans Schäufelein
and Albrecht Dürer, or more probably, copies or imitations.
The passion cycle by Schäufelein11, published for the
first time in Speculum Passionis by Ulrich Pinder, published in Nuremberg
in 1507 [B. 34 1-30 (253)], became very popular, especially in Central Europe.
In the Polish Republic not only was the book by Pinder well known, but also
woodcuts modelled on the illustrations by Schäufelein were often published
in the Kraków publishing houses of Scharffenberg and Siebeneicher (¯ywot
Panu Jezu Krysta by Baltazar Opeæ, Kraków 153912, ¯ywot
Pana Jezusów by Jan Wuchaliusz, Kraków, 159213, Rozmyœlania
Mêki Niewinnej …Anny Siebeneicherowej, Kraków 161214?).
Even more popular was The Little Passion by Albrecht Dürer
[B. 22-52 (119)], which seriously influenced the way of presenting The
Passion of Christ in fine arts all over Europe. Dürer’s woodcuts were
very also popular in Central and Eastern Europe. These works reached the Polish
Republic not only thanks to German publications which were often decorated with
the master’s illustrations, but also thanks to Polish ones15.
The creator of the icon from Ko¿uchowce copied the
following quarters from prints included in one of the above mentioned Kraków
publications16, modelled on Schäufelein’s Passion: The Agony in
the Garden, The Betrayal of Judas, Christ Before Ananias, Christ Before Pilate (fig.
3 and 4), Ecce Homo, The Judgement of Pilate, The Nailing to the Cross, The
Entombment, The Lamentation. He used Dürer’s works painting the
following scenes: The Washing of the Feet, Christ Before Caiaphas,
Christ Before Herod, The Crowning with Thorns and The Mocking of Christ.
The Russian painter did not slavishly copy the models he had:
he skipped or added figures, changed details of garments, freely interpreted
architectural details. He used the German woodcuts to compose scenes, to draft a
reasonably correct geometric perspective, to shape the figures and to sketch the
architecture, garments and furniture. Despite his average talent, the creator of
the icons used the models he had to the full, and enriched his own techniques
with new iconographic motifs, models of figures, and the ability to present
three-dimensional space and solids on the plane.
The person who also used Schäufelein’s, or, more
probably his followers’ woodcuts, was the creator of a 17th
century icon The Passion of Christ from Dolina17. The Russian painter, who
probably had ¯ywot Pana Jesu Krysta by Opeæ (Kraków
1539) or ¯ywot Pana Jezusów…by Wuchaliusz (Kraków
1592)17, copied from it at least nine illustrations, which he used as models for
the following quarters: Christ before Pilate (two scenes), Christ
before Caiaphas, Christ before Herod, The Mocking of Christ, The Stripping of
Christ, The Bearing of the Cross, The Nailing to the Cross and The
Raising of the Cross.
The painter of the icon in question did not limit himself to
using just one passion cycle. Among 39 scenes in The Passion from Dolina
few elements refer to the Byzantine - Russian tradition of painting; too many
foreign motifs make us assume that the creator of the icon used western graphic
works as his models. Apart from woodcuts referring to Schäufelein, he also
knew the works of Dutch masters, because the following scenes: The Agony in
the Garden, The Betrayal of Judas, The Flagellation, The Crowning with Thorns (fig
7), Ecce homo, The Judgement of Pilate, The Entombment and The Resurrection were
modelled on the prints made by Hieronimus Wierix according to drawings by Martin
de Vos (M.-H. 147, 148, 151-4 (fig. 8), 158, 160)18. The quarter illustrating the
words from the Book of John (J. 19, 13-16), when Pilate, having taken Christ to
the crowds, sat at the place called Lithostratos, was copied from the print Ecce
homo by Cornelis Cort according to a design by Étienne du Pérec,
[(B. 82-I (94)]20. The presentation of The Crucifixion refers to the work
of a Dutch graphic artist Philip Galle according to Johannes Stradanus21.
In all cases the Russian painter clumsily tried to copy the
positions of the figures, elements of garments, furniture and architectural
details; but mediocre skills did not allow him to copy them faithfully. He had
to simplify the composition and the gestures of the figures. Due to lack of
understanding of the rules of geometric perspective, despite differentiating the
size of figures in various grounds, the presentations lack depth, and the
figures seem crowded in one plane.
Western graphics also brought about change in the way of
presenting passion topics in monumental painting. Many foreign iconographic
motifs can be seen in presentations of The Passion of Christ in St.
George’s orthodox church in the town of Drogobych. The creator of the
polychromy in this church, while painting the following scenes: The
Flagellation (fig. 9), The Crowning with Thorns and The Carrying
of the Cross referred to the works of Johan Collaert, according to M. de Vos
(H. 1582-4) (fig. 10). The Russian painter made the necessary changes to adjust
Dutch models to the quarters in the shape of the landscape rectangle: he removed
the depth of the presentations and episodes in the background, widened the
composition by situating the figures more sparsely in a larger area. The
painter, according to his abilities, tried to repeat the mannerist positions of
Christ’s torturers, their garments, elements of their armour or even the ways
in which the fabric was positioned, but his attempts were quite clumsy.
The popularity of Dutch graphics among Ukrainian painters
seems enormous. It was used as a model not only by weak artists, who were not
able to diversify the way of presenting the topics, to perfect their techniques
and to enrich the range of compositions. The desire to break with ancient
iconographic motifs and to follow new trends in European painting also forced
talented artists to reach for models offered by western graphics. Among these
artists we should first mention Fedir Señkowycz and Myko³a
Petrachnowycz22 (fig. 11), the creators of, among others, the iconostasis for the
orthodox church of the Dormition of the Mother of God in Lviv23. The icons of the
passion row show so much novelty and so many features unknown to traditional
orthodox church painting, that even at first sight, one must suspect that their
creators made use of western models. Indeed both artists, while painting The
Passion for the orthodox church of the Dormition of the Mother of God used
western graphics. They must have known at least three passion cycles: one by
Hieronimus Wierix and Bernard Passero, published for the first time in Antwerp
in 1593 in the work of Hieronimus Natali Evangelicae Historiae Imagine (M.-H.
2059-2141); the other by Hieronimus Wierix based on designs by P. Van der
Borcht, in the work published in 1571 in Plantin’s publishing house in the
work by Arias Montao Benito Humane salutis Monumenta (M.-H. 2197-2213)24
and the third made by the Wierixes based on a design by Martin de Vos (M.-H.
146-159) (fig. 8). Russian painters used the models consistently and pretty
faithfully, copying entire compositions or compiling several presentations from
the same or different cycles25. Petrachnowycz only once deviated from the prints
by the Wierixes, when he was painting the quarter entitled The Agony in the
Garden: the figure of the kneeling Christ was modelled on a print by Egidus
Sadeler II based on a design of Johan von Achen: H. 4426, and the sleeping
apostles were modelled on a print by J. Coleart I based on M. de Vos: H. 1531.
The creators of passion icons from the orthodox church of the
Dormition of the Mother of God copied almost everything from models:
three-dimensional space, architectural details, garments, soldiers’ armour,
furniture and single figures or groups of people. But Russian painters,
especially Petrachnowycz, were not entirely able to cope with the wealth of
motifs presented in the prints. His presentations are crowded and badly
composed: large numbers of figures, the wealth of realistically presented
elements of garments, furniture, architecture and several episodes squeezed into
the frame of one presentation, even though manifesting new tendencies in icon
painting, did not aid the reception of this art by the congregation.
The works of Dutch masters were also known to the creator of
the passion row in the iconostasis of Ss. Piatnice in Lviv. The scene of The
Last Supper was inspired by the print made in 1578 by Cornelis Cort,
according to a design by Livio Agresti Forlivetano (H. 76)27; the scenes of
Christ before Herod and The Bearing of the Cross (fig. 12) were based
on prints by Johann Sadeler I from 1589 according to a design by Christoph
Schwarz, belonging to the cycle entitled Prêcipua Passionis D. N. Jesu
Christi Mysteria (H. 233-41) (fig. 13)28. The Russian painter skilfully used
foreign models, transforming them at will. He did not copy the entire print
uncritically; he chose episodes and groups of figures which matched his vision
and did not crowd the space unnecessarily. One is also aware of differences in
the way of presenting architecture, and, first of all, faces of particular
figures, who in Lwow icons have clear Semitic features. The creator of the icon
was acquainted with the rules of creating geometrical perspective, thanks to
which his presentations gained in depth, and the further back the ground, the
smaller the figures.
Dutch graphics related to the topic of passion was also
popular in the Ukraine in the 18th century.
The illustrations made in the Wierixes’ workshop for the
works of Martin de Vos (M.-H. 105, 109 (fig. 15), 111) were also used by the
creator of the 18th century icon entitled The Passion
of Christ from Semeniwka29, while he was painting the following scenes: The
Washing of the Feet, Peter’s Denial (fig. 14), Christ before Pilate. In
this case, the Russian painter could have used Piskator’s Bible, a very
popular collection of biblical illustrations, also known in the East30. This is
very likely, because the scene Noli me tangere (Christ Appears after
his Death to Mary Magdalene) shows great resemblance to the print by G. de
Jode included in this book. The creator of the icon used also works by M. de Vos
while painting scenes of The Crucifixion and The Descent into Hell, for
which he used prints from the cycle made by Adrian Colleart (H. 320/II, 324/I)31.
This provincial, not very skilled artist was not able to use the opportunities
that the graphics offered him. In this icon we only detect a general resemblance
to western models. The painter was not able to build the depth of the painting,
he was not familiar with the technique of drafting the linear perspective, which
can be seen in his clumsy attempts at presenting shortened versions of, e.g.
architectural elements. He omitted difficult elements, presentations in distant
grounds, limiting his presentation to the most important figures. He copied some
unconventional positions reasonably well (Christ and Peter in The Washing of
the Feet, Peter and one of the soldiers in Peter’s Denial), but
others look almost like caricatures (criminals on the crosses).
Almost identical compositions of several scenes in 18th
century icons of The Passion of Christ from Wis³ok Wielki32 (fig. 16)
and in icons of unknown provenance in the monastery of the Studites in Lviv
(fig. 17) show that the painters used the same models. They were both familiar
with the passion cycle by Johan and Adrian Collaerts according to a design by
Martin de Vos (H 304-324) (fig. 18), on which they based a part of the
composition of The Passion33. Even though both painters did not entirely
understand the principles of creating depth in the composition and wrongly
drafted the lines building the space on the plane, their presentations,
especially in the Lviv icon, do not seem flat. Also the figures, even though
they are in positions not always consistent with anatomical verities, are very
expressive, which is additionally stressed by properly painted garments and the
armour. The painters did not copy all the motifs present in the prints, but they
were not afraid to paint difficult figures, presented in unconventional
positions (Peter in the scene The Washing of the Feet, mercenaries in The
Flagellation). The artists also copied, often quite faithfully, decorative
details of garments, armour or furniture which were alien to them.
The examples presented allow us to draw general conclusions
concerning the influence of western graphics on modern Ukrainian icon painting,
especially in the area of passion topics.
Graphic cycles, disseminated thanks to the art of print all
over Europe, reached even its eastern borders, inhabited mostly by the Russians,
and influenced enormously the art created by them and for them.
In the 16th century, German woodcuts by
M. Schongauer, H. Schäufelein and Dürer were very popular in Ukraine.
Passion cycles by these masters were also known in the 17th
century, when the market was invaded by the works of artists from the Antwerp
school, especially members of the following families: the Wierixes, the
Collaerts, the Sadelers, and also Cornelis Cort and Philip Galle. The works of
Dutch woodcutters unquestionably dominated in the 18th
Western prints were helpful for both weak, untalented
creators and recognised masters. The range of using graphic models depended on
the ability of the painter. Talented painters acquired or developed their
ability to draft linear perspective, to build depth and to present solids on the
plane, perfected their ability to show movement, enriched their techniques with
new iconographic models and motifs. They were able not only to copy the existing
model, but also to juxtapose the elements taken from various prints, and thus
create separate compositions.
The works of the best European masters were very troublesome
for weak painters who were not even able to copy the existing model faithfully.
The compositions in western prints were too complicated: built according to the
principle of geometric perspective, with presentations situated in various
grounds. The positions of the figures, especially in mannerist illustrations by
Dutch masters, were too complicated (presented from the back, in counterpoint or
unnaturally contorted) not to cause problems for an untrained orthodox church
artist. Such an artist took a general composition scheme from the western model,
limiting it most often to the foreground and the positions of the figures, which
he simplified considerably or copied so clumsily that they looked like
caricatures. The painter also usually took architectural details, elements of
garments and furniture from the prints.
Western graphics entirely changed the way of presenting
passion topics in the modern icon painting in Ukraine. In the 17th,
and especially in the 18th century, a complete departure
from the motifs shaped in the post-iconoclastic times and preponderant in
eastern art in the Middle Ages can be observed. For Ukrainian painting the
changes towards modern times meant entering the zone of western influence and
breaking away from the tradition of presenting the Byzantine - Russian art,
prevailing until then.
Fig. 1. The Flagellation, detail of icon The
Passion of Christ from Truszewice, near Dobromil, 16th
century, National Museum in Lviv
Fig. 2. The Flagellation, woodcut, Martin Schongauer,
B. 12 (125)
Fig. 3. Christ before Pilate, detail of icon The
Passion of Christ from Ko¿uchowce (Közmös), 17th
century, the East-Slovak Museum in Koszyce
Fig. 4. Christ before Pilate, woodcut included in Żywot
pana Jesu Krysta by J. Wuchaliusz (Kraków 1594) (J.
Muczkowski, Zbiór odcisków drzeworytów, no 259)
Fig. 5. The Mocking of Christ, detail of icon The
Passion of Christ from Ko¿uchowce (Közmös), 17th
the East-Slovak Museum in Koszyce
Fig. 6. The Mocking of Christ, A. Dürer, woodcut
of The Little Passion, B. 30 (120)
Fig. 7. The Crowning with Thorns, detail of icon The
Passion of Christ from Dolina, 17th century, National
Museum in Lviv
Fig. 8. The Crowning with Thorns, print by Hieronimus
Wierix according to drawings by Martin de Vos (M.-H. 152)
Fig. 9. The Flagellation, detail of polychromy The
Passion of Christ in St. George’s orthodox church in the town of Drogobych
Fig. 10. The Flagellation, print of Johan Collaert,
according to M. de Vos (H.-M. 1582)
Fig. 11. The Crowning with Thorns, icon, Myko³a
Petrachnowycz, Lviv, orthodox church of the Dormition of the Mother of God
Fig. 12. The Bearing of the Cross, icon, 17th
century, Lviv, orthodox church of the Ss Piatnice
Fig. 13. The Bearing of the Cross, print by Johann
Sadeler I from 1589 according to a design by Christoph Schwarz (H. 238) (Library
PAN and PAU in Kraków)
Fig. 14. Peter’s Denial, detail of icon The
Passion of Christ from Semeniwka, 18th century, Lviv,
Fig. 15. Peter’s Denial, print of Wierixes’
workshop for the works of Martin de Vos (M.-H. 109) (Jagiellonian Library)
Fig. 16. The Washing of the Feet, detail of icon The
Passion of Christ from Wis³ok Wielki, 18th
century, Sanok, Historical Museum
Fig. 17. The Washing of the Feet, detail of icon The
Passion of Christ, 18th centures, Lviv, the monastery
of the Studites
Fig. 18. The Washing of the Feet, print by Johan and
Adrian Collaerts according to a design by Martin de Vos (H 308)
* (all photos by Piotr Krawiec)
1 In 1767 the iconostasis was taken to Ss. Cosma and Damian
Orthodox Church in the village of Velyke Grybovyèi. The only icons left
in Lviv were those of St. John Chrysostom and St. Basil the Great
from the frame of the Royal door, kept in the National Museum (index no.
33646/2, I-998; 3346/1, I-997. (reproduced in: V.I. Svjencic’ka, O.F.Sydor, Spadšèyna
vikiv, Ukraijins’ke maljarstvo XIV-XVIII stolit’ v muzejnyh kolekcijah Lvova,
Lviv 1990, il. 78-81; recently in V. Ovsijèuk, Ukrajins’ke
malijarstvo X-XVII stolit’. Problemy koloru, Lviv 1996, pp. 309-11; V.
Otkovyè, V. Pylypjuk, Ukrajins’ka ikona XIV -XVIII st., Lviv
1999, pp. 78-81 and the passion cycle hanging until today in the Chapel of the
orthodox church of the Dormition of the Mother of God (reproduction: V. I
Svjencic’ka, O. S. Sydor, Spadšèyna vikiv, il.
83-84; L. Mijaeva, The Ukrainian Icon 11th-18th centuries. From Byzantine
Sources to the Baroque, Bournemouth-Saint Petersburg 1996..., il.
2 P.M. Žo³tovs’kyj, Ukrajins’kyj žyvopys
XVII - XVIII st. Kyjiv 1978, p.109.
3 V. Svjencic’ka, Ivan Rutkovyè i
stanovlennja realizmu v ykrajins’komu maljarstvi XVII st, Kyjiv 1966, p.
85 ff.; V.A. Ovsijèuk, Majstry ukrajins’kogo barokko. Žovskivs’kij
hudožnyij oseredok, Kyjiv 1991, p.148
4 L. Miljajeva Stinopys Potelyèa. Vyzvolna
borot’ba ukrajins’kogo narodu v mystectvi XVII st. Kyjiv 1969; also
Rospysy Potelyèa. Pamjatnik ukrainskoj monumentalnoj živopisi
XVII veka, Moskva 1971.
5 E. Dwornik-Gutowska, Polichromia cerkwii w Uluczu,
„Materiały Muzeum Budownictwa Ludowego w Sanoku”, 1965, no.2, pp.
14-20; J. Giemza, Polichromie ścienne w drewnianych cerkwiach Nadsania,
in: Malarstwo Monumentalne Polski południowo-wschodniej,
Rzeszów 1995, pp. 69-81; also Malowidła
ścienne jako element wystroju drewnianych cerkwii w XVII wieku,
in Sztuka cerkiewna w diecezji przemyskiej.
Materiały z międzynarodowej sesji naukowej 25-26 marca 1995 roku,
Łańcut 1999, pp. 89-150, esp. 102-105 and 133.
6 J. A. Tomicka, Tematyka pasyjna w grafice XVI-XVII w.,
in: Arcydzieło Petera Paula Rubensa Zdjęcie
z krzyża ze zbiorów Państwowego Ermitażu w Sankt
Petersburgu. Z tradycji przedstawień pasyjnych w malarstwie i grafice północnoeuropejskiej
XVI i XVII wieku ze zbiorów Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie (exhibition
catalogue), Warszawa 2000, p. 65.
7 This article presents the results of the research on the
dependence of the Ukrainian passion presentations on western graphics, carried
out since 1996 as a part of an MA seminar and then a PhD seminar, in the
Institute of History of Art at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków
under the guidance of Prof. Anna Ró¿ycka-Bryzek. The great part of
the results of the research was analysed in detail by me in papers: Wpływ
grafiki zachodniej na ilustracje ukraińskich druków liturgicznych w
wieku XVII i XVIII, “Krakowskie Zeszyty Ukrainoznawcze”, t. XVII,
1998-1999, s. 313-337 and Recepcja
niderlandzkich wzorów graficznych w XVII-wiecznych cyklach pasyjnych w
cerkwiach Zaśnięcia Matki Boskiej i ŚŚ. Piatnic we Lwowie,
Inspiracje twórców zachodnio-ruskich
grafiką niemiecką w XVI i XVII wieku, Rola
grafiki zachodniej w zmianie sposobu obrazowania przedstawień pasyjnych w
ukraińskim malarstwie ikonowym w wiekach XVII i XVIII, which
will be published in 2001.
8 Lviv, National Museum, index no. 15813/1-1601; published for
the first time in: I. Svjencickyj-Svjatyc’kyj, Ikony Galyckoji Ukrajiny
XV-XVI v.v. Zbirky Ukrajins’kogo nacionalnogo Muzeju u Lvovi, Lviv 1929, p.
121, il. 200. Most researchers have dated the icon to the turn of the 16th
century (G. Logvyn, L. Miljajeva, V. Svjencic’ka, Ukrajins’kyj
Kyjiv 1976, table LXIX; V. I. Svjencic’ka, Žyvopys XIV-XVI stolit’,
in: Istorija ukrajins’kogo mystectva, t. 2, Mystectvo XIV - perszoj
polovyny XVII stolittja, Kyjiv 1967; L. Milyaeva, The Ukrainian Icon… and
others) but the discovered graphic models and analogies in painting make us
believe, according to Svjencic’ki’s assumptions, that the exact date is
around the 16th century. Recently, M.P. Kruk also inclined
to this date in paper: Związki południowe
malarstwa ikonowego XV-XVI wieku z obszaru północnych Karpat na
przykładzie tematu Ukrzyżowania, w: Sztuka cerkiewna w
diecezji przemyskiej…, s. 54.
9 R. Grządziela, Proweniencja i dzieje malarstwa
ikonowego po północnej stronie Karpat w XVI i na pocz.
XVI w., in: Łemkowie w historii i
kulturze Karpat, ed.. J. Czajkowski, part II, Sanok 1994, p. 250.
10 The Illustrated Bartch, vol. 8, Early German
Artists, New York 1980, p. 228, no. 15, 12, 13 (125).
11 Reproductions of woodcuts included in Żywot
pana Jesu Krysta by J. Wuchaliusz (Kraków 1594) were published
in: J. Muczkowski, Zbiór odcisków
drzeworytów w różnych dziełach polskich w XV i XVII w.
odbitych, a teraz w Bibliotece Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego zachowanych,
Kraków 1849, il. 155-270. For the illustrations of the first Polish
prints cf.: A. Batterówna, Drzeworyt polski w 1 po³. æw.
XVI na tle grafiki zachodnio-europejskiej, “Sprawozdania
Towarzystwa Naukowego we Lwowie” ed. P. Dąbkowski, Lwów 1926, pp.
19-24; and, Polskie ilustracje książkowe….,
pp. 289-400; E. Chojecka, Związki
artystyczne polskiego drzeworytu renesansowego z grafiką europejską. Kryspin
i Wendel Scharffenberg, “Acta Uniwersitatis Wratislawiensis. Bibliotekoznawstwo”,
Wrocław 1978, pp. 181 - 193 and Ilustracja
polskiej książki drukowanej XVI i XVII w., Warszawa 1980,
also: A. Treiderowa, Ze studiów nad
ilustracją wydawnictw krakowskich w wieku XVII (z drukarni Piotrowczyków,
Cezarych, Szeldów i Kupiszów), “Rocznik Biblioteki
Polskiej Akademii Nauk w Krakowie”, r. XIV, 1968; and Związki
Krakowa z Antwerpią w zakresie ilustracji książek w końcu
XVI i w w. XVII, “Sprawozdania Polskiej Akademii Nauk”, vol.
12 The copy used comes from the Jagiellonian Library in Kraków,
index no.: Cim 4752
13 The copy used comes from the Library of the Polish Academy of
Science and the Polish Academy of Skills in Kraków (further as Library of
PAN and PAU), index no.: Cim 2186.
14 The copy used comes from the Jagiellonian Library in Kraków,
index no.: 37716.
15 E.g. Postylla domowa… by Martin Luter translated by
Hieronim Mielecki, published in Królewiec in 1574 (Jagiellonian Library
in Kraków, Cim. 8184), or Biblia published in the Kraków
publishing house of Szarffenberger in 1575 (The Czartoryski Library in Kraków,
16 Differences between passion cycles included in Speculum
passionis…, and Scharffenberger’s or Siebenejcher’s editions (e.g.
various prints presenting The Betrayal of Judas) indicate that the
creator of the icon under discussion used illustrations included in Kraków
17 In the National Museum in Lviv, cat. no. 2423 (unpublished).
18 These editions include most prints; see footnotes 12 and 13.
19 M. Mauquoy-Hendrickx, Les estampes des Wierix,
Brussels 1978, vol. 1, no. 147-8, 151-4, 158, 160 (further as M.-H.)
20 Reproductjon in: The Illustrated Bartch, vol.. 52, p.
99, no. 82-I.
21 Ibid., vol. 56, p. 137, no. 5601, .043.
22 Among distinguished 17th century
Ukrainian painters who created passion icons and used western graphics as a
model one should also mention Iwan Rutkowyè, whose work was analysed in
detail by V. Œvjencic’ka, Ivan Rutkovyè…, op. cit.
Rutkovyè most often used prints included in Theatrum Biblicum hoc est
Historiae Sacrae Veteris et Novi Testamenti…. per Nicolaum Johannis Piscatorem,
Amsterdam 1650, 1674.
23 Cf. footnote 1.
24 The copy of Arias Montao Benito, Humane salutis monumenta,
Antwerp is deposited in the Jagiellonian Library (index. no. 375951 I).
25 The Entry into Jerusalem modelled on M.-H 2059-61; The
Raising of Lazarus: M.-H 2197, M.-H 2051, M.-H 2073, M.-H 2052; The
Deposition: M.-H 2100; Christ before Pilate: M.-H 2205, M.-H 2090; The
Flagellation: M.-H 2207, M.-H 151, M.-H 2089; The Betrayal of Christ:
M.-H 2203, M.-H 2076; The Crowning with Thorns (fig. 11): M.-H 152
(fig. 8), M.-H 2088 and M.-H 2208; The Judgement of Pilate: M.-H 154,
M.-H 2091; The Washing of the Feet: M.-H 2069; Christ before Herod: M.-H
2206, M. H. 2087 and M. H. 2083; Christ before Caiaphas: M.-H 2081-2;
Christ Sentenced: M.-H 2084-5, The Bearing of the Cross: M.-H 133,
M-H 2094; Christ’s Farewell Speech: M-H 2074, 2058.
26 F.W.H. Hollstein, Dutch and Flemish Etchings Engravings
and Woodcuts 1450-1700, vol. 21, no. 44 (further as H. no.); The
Illustrated Bartch, t. 72, part 1 (Supplement), p. 71, no. 045 S1.
27 Reproduction in: The Illustrated Bartch, vol. 52
(Supplement), pp. 91-2, no. 76-I (89), 76-II (89).
28 Prints from this cycle can be also found in the PAN and PAU
Library in Kraków, inv. no. 3029.
29 Lviv, Picture Gallery (permanent exhibition in the Castle in
30 Theatrum Biblicum … (copy in the Jagiellonian
Library, 1674, index no. 1130 III, card 399); see also footnote 22..
31 Prints belonging to the passion cycle made by Adrean Collaert
according to designs by Martin de Vos can also be found in the Library of PAN
and PAU in Kraków: index no. 1711 and 1714.
32 Sanok, Historical Museum, inv. no. 999 (unpublished).
33 The same model was used by both artists to paint the scenes
of: The Washing of the Feet (H. 308), Christ before Pilate (H.
313), The Crowning with Thorns (H. 316), The Judgement of Pilate
(H. 318), additionally in the icon from Wis³ok Wielki: The Entry into
Jerusalem was modelled on print H. 305, The Agony in the Garden from
H. 310, The Nailing to the Cross from H. 320, The Deposition from
H. 321, The Entombment from H. 322, and in the icon in the collection of
the monks from Lviv: Christ before Herod from H. 314, and Ecce homo
from H. 317.
Agnieszka Gronek. On the dependence of western Russian passion presentations on the western graphics in the 16th to 18th centuries / Byzantine Studies, (http://archaeology.kiev.ua/byzantine/post/gronek.htm).